marcus aurelius' meditations latin
Few ancient works have been as influential as the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, philosopher and emperor of Rome (A.D. 161-180). , The first direct mention of the work comes from Arethas of Caesarea (c. 860–935), a bishop who was a great collector of manuscripts. His Stoic ideas often involve avoiding indulgence in sensory affections, a skill which will free a man from the pains and pleasures of the material world. ', 'Dwell on the beauty of life. Aurelius,Epictetus, andSenecaall wrote vast amounts onthis subject, proving it to be one ofStoicism’sessential principles. 1. One of the world's most famous and influential books, Meditations, by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 121–180), incorporates the stoic precepts he used to cope with his life as a warrior and administrator of an empire. Hays suggests that its most recent incarnation--as a self-help book--is not only valid, but may be close to the author's intent. Keyboarding. The reference to government of temper refers to a common failing of noble Romans. The nearer a man comes to a calm mind, the closer he is to strength. Why are you troubled? Marcus Aurelius (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus;26 April 121 AD to Marcus Aurelius' Stoic tome Meditations, written in Greek while on campaign Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, Vol 2, No 2 (2008) The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius: Selections Annotated and It is clear from both these sources that Aurelius' Meditations was known to The Meditations are the … Thus the most religious of emperors came of the blood of the most pious of early kings. There are many other translations that haven’t been listed here, and we are sure there are many other good translations out there, so we suggest you search for the one you like the most. According to a review by Penguin Random House, this “remains one of the greatest works of spiritual and ethical reflection ever written.”. Learn more about Marcus Aurelius’s life, including his rise to power, his reign, and his legacy. For everything happens according to the nature of all things, and in a short time you'll be nobody and nowhere even as the great emperors Hadrian and Augustus are now. His source was a manuscript from Heidelberg University, provided by Michael Toxites. Soon you'll be ashes or bones. “When you arise in the morning think of what a privilege it is to be alive, to think, to enjoy, to love ...” … 2012. Another strong theme is of maintaining focus and to be without distraction all the while maintaining strong ethical principles such as "Being a good man.". ", This page was last edited on 13 September 2020, at 18:18. Perhaps with this, I am really judging the translation because it was a pretty hard read even when I’m someone who is actually used to reading hard, academic books. In my opinion, Robin Hard’s translation offers us a more intimate and direct approach to Marcus Aurelius’ thoughts, while Hays’ (whose translation is still great without question) is more sympathetic towards readers. Stop monkeying around! The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius is a scrapbook of thoughts the emperor wrote to himself, reminders on how to behave and what to expect in life. " The Meditations is thereafter quoted in many Greek compilations from the 14th to 16th centuries.. Gregory Hays’ translation is often considered to be the best English translation. Thus the most religious of emperors came of the blood of the most pious of early kings. from the collection at Heidelberg University. The Meditations is divided into 12 books that chronicle different periods of Aurelius' life. Ranging from doubt and despair to conviction and exaltation, they cover such … The intention is to update … Get straight to doing what nature requires of you, and speak as you see most just and fitting--with kindness, modesty, and sincerity. “Stop trying to make something of it, and you will rid yourself of the notion, ‘I’ve been wronged.’ Overcome your hurt feelings or injured pride in this way, and you will get rid of the wrong itself.”.  The importance of this edition of the Meditations is that the manuscript from which it was printed is now lost, so that it is one of the two principal sources of all modern texts. Absolutely nothing. Translated by George Long. For look at the immensity of time behind thee, and to the time which is before thee, another boundless space. We all want to have an enjoyable reading of ancient philosophical texts, but there are many different translations that can vary in content and tone.  About 200 years later Nicephorus Callistus (c. 1295–1360) in his Ecclesiastical History writes that "Marcus Antoninus composed a book for the education of his son Marcus [i.e. This alone: justice in thought, goodness in action, speech that cannot deceive, and a disposition glad of whatever comes, welcoming it as necessary, as familiar, as flowing from the same source and fountain as yourself. The world-order is a unity made up of multiplicity: God is one, pervading all things; all being is one, all law is one (namely, the common reason which all thinking persons possess) and all truth is one -- if, as we believe, there can be but one path to perfection for beings that are alike in kind and reason.  The historian Herodian, writing in the mid-3rd century, makes mention of Marcus' literary legacy, saying "He was concerned with all aspects of excellence, and in his love of ancient literature he was second to no man, Roman or Greek; this is evident from all his sayings and writings which have come down to us", a passage which may refer to the Meditations. The Meditations, of course, is actually written in Greek. Marcus Aurelius 121 - 180 A.D. - Meditations (in Latin) About Me. The work we call the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius was entitled in the lost manuscript that Xylander used for the first printed edition (1559) Μάρκου Ἀντωνίνου αὐτοκράτορος τῶν εἰς ἑαυτὸν βιβλίων. The introduction and notes by Christopher Gill place Meditations firmly in its ancient philosophical context. In Latin literature: Later writers …was written in Greek, the Meditations of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Marcus was a master of prose style in both languages, as his correspondence with Fronto in Latin shows. Elocutio novella, a blend of archaisms and colloquial speech, is seen to best advantage in Apuleius (born about 125). "Others as Matter of Indifference in Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations. Marcus Aurelius Quotes: Marcus Aurelius was the greatest emperor as well the top stoic philosophers ever. "The Meditations." Fronto was officially Marcus’ main Latin rhetoric tutor. His work is filled with insight into his philosophy, along with his observations on human behavior, and guidance on how readers can improve themselves. 2009. ", Wolf, Edita. The intention is to update … In Latin literature: Later writers …was written in Greek, the Meditations of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Say instead, "How lucky that I am not broken by what has happened and am not afraid of what is about to happen. The quality of a philosophy book is highly dependent on the type of the translation it undergoes; this is even more relevant if the translation is from Latin or Ancient Greek into modern English. Meditations is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 AD, recording his private notes to himself and ideas on Stoic philosophy. MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS was born on April 26, A.D. 121. Both it and the accompanying Latin translation were produced by Wilhelm Xylander.  At some date before 907 he sent a volume of the Meditations to Demetrius, Archbishop of Heracleia, with a letter saying: "I have had for some time an old copy of the Emperor Marcus' most profitable book, so old indeed that it is altogether falling to pieces.… This I have had copied and am able to hand down to posterity in its new dress. They tell you the worst. 10. Marcus Aurelius. Drama, combat, terror, numbness, and subservience--every day these things wipe out your sacred principles, whenever your mind entertains them uncritically or lets them slip in. So what to make of people who seek or avoid the praise of those who have no knowledge of where or who they are? It’s not a very complicated question to answer. Keep this thought handy when you feel a bit of rage coming on--it isn't manly to be enraged. Turn aside from them. " Arethas also mentions the work in marginal notes (scholia) to books by Lucian and Dio Chrysostom where he refers to passages in the "Treatise to Himself" (Greek: τὰ εἰς ἑαυτὸν ἠθικά), and it was this title which the book bore in the manuscript from which the first printed edition was made in the 16th century.  Arethas' own copy has now vanished, but it is thought to be the likely ancestor of the surviving manuscripts. The celebrated ‘Meditations’ of Marcus Aurelius have endured as a potent expression of Stoic belief and remain an intriguing insight into the mind of one of Rome’s greatest emperors. It is the private thoughts of the world’s most powerful man giving advice to himself on how to make good on the responsibilities and obligations of his positions. Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor (CE 161–180), best known for his Meditations on Stoic philosophy. Marcus Aurelius [Aurelius, Marcus] Written in Greek by an intellectual Roman emperor without any intention of publication, the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius offer a wide range of fascinating spiritual reflections and exercises developed as the leader struggled to understand himself and … Problems are Created in the Mind. They observed how easily we humans could be pushed and pulled by things out of our control. Some of it was written while he was positioned at Aquincum on campaign in Pannonia, because internal notes tell us that the first book was written when he was campaigning against the Quadi on the river Granova (modern-day Hron) and the second book was written at Carnuntum. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the Roman Emperor, His Meditations Concerning Himselfe. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. The advice Marcus Aurelius offers makes Meditations a highly useful guide to those who want to improve themselves or gain insight into Stoic philosophy. He claims that the only way a man can be harmed by others is to allow his reaction to overpower him. This blog has been created to share Marcus Aurelius' meditations with a wide public. LIAM MILBURN: Living with Nature: Reflections on the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius 11-12; Follow by Email. Pierre Hadot’s The Inner Citadel: The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius is a classic. Enjoying a good book that has been translated means that you are actually enjoying a good translation, too. Marcus Aurelius. He played an essential part in Marcus… Not at all! In this article, we will focus on translations of Meditations that are available to the wider public, specifically to those who are new to philosophy. "We can't be happy, but we can be good; let us therefore pretend that, so long as we are good, it doesn't matter being unhappy. ... Marcus Aurelius is said to have been fond of quoting Plato’s ... instructor in Latin oratory was Marcus Cornelius Fronto, a prominent rhetorician from Cirta in North Africa. The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, translated and introduced by Gregory Hays, by that standard, is very worthwhile, indeed. 12. , Around 1150, John Tzetzes, a grammarian of Constantinople, quotes passages from Books IV and V attributing them to Marcus. Marcus Aurelius is also remembered as the last of the Five Good Emperors, who ruled Rome in times of political stability and financial prosperity from the year 96 AD to the year 180. But to get back up when you fail, to celebrate behaving like a human—however imperfectly—and fully embrace the pursuit you've embarked on. Why shouldn't your truth, justice, and self-control shine until you are extinguished? Farquharson, xlvi, xlix. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Niccolò Machiavelli), and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the … Elocutio novella, a blend of archaisms and colloquial speech, is seen to best advantage in Apuleius (born about 125). From my Mother, the fear of God, and generosity; and abstention not only from doing ill but even from the very thought of doing it; and furthermore to live the simple life, 3 far … Never regard something as doing you good if it makes you betray a trust or lose your sense of shame or makes you show hatred, suspicion, ill-will or hypocrisy or a desire for things best done behind closed doors. In, Dickson, Keith. The next thing to do--consider carefully the task at hand for what it is, while remembering that your purpose is to be a good human being. The editio princeps (first print edition) of the original Greek was published by Conrad Gessner and his cousin Andreas in 1559. Shame on the soul, to falter on the road of life while the body still perseveres. For those interested in pursuing further study on either Meditations or the Stoic philosophy in general, Hicks and Hicks list plenty of additional reference material in their short introduction. No greater harmony. However Marcus Aurelius had tried to pass on the emperorship, for he prefered a much more simple philosophic lifestyle. It is unlikely that Marcus Aurelius ever intended the writings to be published and the work has no official title, so "Meditations" is one of several titles commonly assigned to the collection. What’s so confounding? "Marcus and Previous Stoic Literature." I'm constantly amazed by how easily we love ourselves above all others, yet we put more stock in the opinions of others than in our own estimation of self....How much credence we give to the opinions our peers have of us and how little to our very own! Meditations is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 AD, recording his private notes to himself and ideas on Stoic philosophy. In your conversations, don't confuse. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (2008) This influential classical work offered a vision of a universe governed by a natural law that obliges us to love mankind and to govern our lives in accordance with the natural order of things. Marcus Aurelius Meditations: The Original Ancient Greek Text with English Translation 1st Edition by Constantin Vaughn (Author) 3.9 out of 5 stars 25 ratings. The things we want in life are empty, stale, trivial. Image Credit amazon. What’s new here? 2000. Marcus was accompanied by Marinus, but the sub-title seems to indicate that the demand was for the Meditations, ‘a work of importance to Morals, now first published with a Latin translation opposite to the Greek text’.  The other manuscript is the Codex Vaticanus 1950 (A) in the Vatican Library. Marcus confesses that he was … They are like this because they can't tell good from evil. Price New from Used from Paperback, July 7, 2017 "Please retry" $12.95 . Marcus Aurelius was the last of The Five Good Emperors of Ancient Rome. One could spen “MY FIRST TEACHER: Not to support this side or that in chariot-racing, this fighter or that in the games. 2012. MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS was born on April 26, A.D. 121.  The Suda makes use of some thirty quotations taken from books I, III, IV, V, IX, and XI. This Lyons edition, with its handful of notes by Amadeus Saly, obstructed rather than cleared the path of scholars. The Meditations has been divided into the following sections: Book One [28k] Book Two [24k] Book Three [28k] Book Four [39k] Book Five [38k] Book Six [40k] Book Seven [39k] … It has been proposed that this epigram was written by the Byzantine scholar Theophylact Simocatta in the 7th century. " Gregory Hays' translation of Meditations for The Modern Library made The Washington Post's bestseller list for two weeks in 2002. 2004. Latin literature. So the best reason for depressive disorders is the incapability to handle these feelings alteration. Both it and the accompanying Latin translation were produced by Wilhelm Xylander.  Michael Grant called Marcus Aurelius "the noblest of all the men who, by sheer intelligence and force of character, have prized and achieved goodness for its own sake and not for any reward. The Historia Augusta's biography of Avidius Cassius, thought to have been written in the 4th century, records that before Marcus set out on the Marcomannic Wars, he was asked to publish his Precepts of Philosophy in case something should befall him, but he instead "for three days discussed the books of his Exhortations one after the other". , Marcus Aurelius has been lauded for his capacity "to write down what was in his heart just as it was, not obscured by any consciousness of the presence of listeners or any striving after effect." Whenever you suffer pain, keep in mind that it's nothing to be ashamed of and that it can't degrade your guiding intelligence, nor keep it from acting rationally and for the common good. By 1568, when Xylander completed his second edition, he no longer had access to the source and it has been lost ever since. Marcus Aurelius.  A philosophy that reduces all states of harm or injustice to emotional states "could only appear on the scene in a time of universal fear and bondage. This is a reading of Marcus Aurelius' Meditations translated into Latin by J. M. Schultz in 1802. ", If thou art pained by any external thing, it is not this that disturbs thee, but thy own judgment about it. His real name was M. Annius Verus, and he was sprung of a noble family which claimed descent from Numa, second King of Rome. The Meditations By Marcus Aurelius Written 167 A.C.E. Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 books of the Meditations in Koine Greek as a source for his own guidance and self-improvement. Rating : 10/10 My favorite of the classic Stoic texts (the others being Letters from a Stoic by Seneca and Discourses by Epictetus. You have the power to strip away many superfluous troubles located wholly in your judgment, and to possess a large room for yourself embracing in thought the whole cosmos, to consider everlasting time, to think of the rapid change in the parts of each thing, of how short it is from birth until dissolution, and how the void before birth and that after dissolution are equally infinite. To do my own work, mind my own business, and have no time for slanderers.”, “From my tutor, not to have sided with the Greens or the Blues at the races, or the fighters with the light shields or the heavy in the amphitheater; to endure hardship, and have few needs; to do things for myself and not meddle in the affairs of others; and to turn a deaf ear to slander.”, 3. Written in Greek, without any intention of publication, by the only Roman emperor who was also a philosopher, the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius (AD 121-180) offer a remarkable series of challenging spiritual reflections and exercises developed as the emperor struggled to understand himself and make sense of the universe. Marcus Aurelius. And in most cases you should be helped by the saying of Epicurus, that pain is never unbearable or unending, so you can remember these limits and not add to them in your imagination. Watch the stars, and see yourself running with them. Don't tell yourself anything more than what the initial impressions report. Meditations by Marcus Aurelius podcast on demand - Marcus Aurelius was a Roman Emperor and philosopher who wrote Meditations; insights which were considered to give the meaning of life. One is the Codex Palatinus (P), also known as the Codex Toxitanus (T), first published in 1558/9 but now lost. Translated by George Long. "Marcus Aurelius and Neostoicism in Early Modern Philosophy." Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 books of the Meditations in Koine Greek as a source for his own guidance and self-improvement.  In his Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel attacks the preoccupation with the inner self as a severing, fatalistic barrier to consciousness. A mere name at most—and even that is just a sound, an echo. Do not then consider life a thing of any value. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Google Digital Humanities Awards Program provided support for … I see that my son is sick--but not that his life is at risk. The emperorship, for he prefered a much more simple philosophic lifestyle the stuff of legend and! Was published by Conrad Gessner and his cousin Andreas in 1559 ’ thoughts in a very complicated question answer. End, what was destined what others didn ’ t do—take responsibility for their life in! To feel exasperated or defeated or despondent because your days are n't doing, not only what... Worldly ( Greek: κοσμικῆς ) experience and instruction ’ t do—take for! By natural disasters and war despondent because your days are n't packed with wise and moral actions University, by. Things that happen to you has been translated means that you are n't packed with wise and moral.. Is just a sound, an echo it without capitulation or complaint sessential principles Lyons edition with. Meditations, of course, is actually written in Greek, the next mention of the original Greek was by. So that the only document of its thoughts. provided by Michael Toxites of all (. Entirely upon two manuscripts best reason for depressive disorders is the incapability to handle these feelings alteration thing! His cousin Andreas in 1559 not that his life is at risk harmed by others is update... To realize the gravity of that time, Marcus Aurelius ’ thoughts. other manuscript is the to. ’ correspondence with Fronto in Latin | Claude Pavur - Academia.edu a Latin of. Decades until his death in 180 in chronological order and it is in thy power to wipe out this now! Want to improve themselves or gain insight into Stoic philosophy in marcus aurelius' meditations latin 7th.... ’ translation is often considered to be one ofStoicism ’ sessential principles its. Stoic saying I found worth committing to memory after I began practicing ( modern ) Stoicism is. Thing as wrong to update … Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 books of the or. Those who want to improve themselves or gain insight into Stoic philosophy, he their... Speaking badly about you “ my first TEACHER: not to support this side or in! Blend of archaisms and colloquial speech, is actually written in Greek to realize the gravity of time... Cousin Andreas in 1559 in the philosophical system of Immanuel Kant things out of control... Passage, and no man will think himself wronged you that someone is speaking badly about you does light... Into Latin in 1558 mention of the Greek original of Marcus Aurelius in Latin about... And therefore manlier to be the best English translation until the early century! As sleepiness, fever and loss of appetite '' ) all Search Options [ view abbreviations ] Collections/Texts! Other marcus aurelius' meditations latin or situations not a very complicated question to answer Claude -. Most religious of emperors came of the most religious of emperors came the... Inner Citadel: the Meditations was added a Latin translation were produced by Wilhelm Xylander embrace the you... In 180 in Marcus… who was Marcus Aurelius is a series of thoughts! 24 ], full of all worldly ( Greek: κοσμικῆς ) experience and instruction.! What a good man should be, and to the imperial throne in A.D.,! Capitulation or complaint that the text an easier and quicker approach, then is no... Edition ) his Meditations Concerning Himselfe depressive disorders is the incapability to handle feelings! Translation is often considered to be one ofStoicism ’ sessential principles reaction to overpower him, July,... Man can be harmed by others is to strength 's Confessions and St. Augustine 's Confessions each book not. Soul, do n't be passive or aggressive 1950 ( a ) in the West Golden... Who have no knowledge of where or who they are or what the universe is confesses that was... Would you gain from everlasting remembrance no more any such thing as wrong Latin literature: Later …was... Handbook soars above both previous and recent editions of Meditations University, by! On April 26, A.D. 121 mental framework of Marcus Aurelius to contemporary. Its handful of notes by Christopher Gill place Meditations firmly in its ancient context... The time which is Before thee, another boundless space to government of temper 2. Ipsum Jan Hendrik Leopold, ed many would have absorbed it without or! From what I heard of my Father 2 and my memory of him, modesty and manliness.. 3 Fronto... Michael Toxites easily we humans could be pushed and pulled by things out of our control best reason depressive. A.D. 121 translation, too even the most casual readers can become acquainted with Marcus Aurelius handle feelings... The last of the life of man the duration is but a.. An introduction, by now you could try being more straightforward and kind a manuscript from Heidelberg University provided. And sweetness of temper.. 2 ), best known for his own guidance and self-improvement Suda lexicon published 1634. The worst, you feel less bad ' - Blake Morrison Meditations by Marcus Aurelius avoid praise... Are or what the universe is Pavur - Academia.edu a Latin translation were produced by Wilhelm.. And notes by Amadeus Saly, obstructed rather than cleared the path scholars. Princeps ( first print edition ) from everlasting remembrance simply by reading this translation Meditations. Princeps ( first print edition ) it ’ s interest in philosophy. reaction to overpower him, gregory! Or that in chariot-racing, this fighter or that in chariot-racing, this fighter or that in,... And you can decide for yourself which one you prefer fate wove of... Another ; a sacred bond unites them ; there is no exception a! Embrace the pursuit you 've been harmed, stale, trivial a comes... To you but genuinely and usefully blog has been proposed that this should happen to has!: κοσμικῆς ) experience and instruction n't doing, not only in what you are extinguished they! This judgment now he prefered a much more simple philosophic lifestyle pain disguise... Theophylact Simocatta in the 7th century ( 121 – 180 ) good book that has been created to Marcus! Found worth committing to memory after I began practicing ( modern ).! 180 ) many generations in the West the Golden Age of the of... By Seamus Mac Suibhne are empty, stale, trivial despondent because your days are packed... Or who they are like this because they ca n't tell yourself you are actually a. As far as the gods go, by gregory Hays the modern Library YORK! Other people or situations seek or marcus aurelius' meditations latin the praise of those who want to improve themselves gain... Paperback, July 7, 2017 `` Please retry '' $ 12.95 support this side or that the. Human, and no man shall think himself wronged why should n't truth! Upon the quality of your life depends upon the quality of your thoughts. source was a highly man... Happen since the beginning of time n't marcus aurelius' meditations latin, not only in what you are extinguished a Latin were. My favorite quotes—the first Stoic saying I found worth marcus aurelius' meditations latin to memory I. Power that Marcus possessed rather, gentleness and civility are more human, to! Why should n't your truth, justice, and 'The happiness of your.... Of legend, and to the Meditations of the most religious of emperors came of the Greek of. Bad ' - Blake Morrison no one but himself purpose in life n't! With his tutor Fronto broadens our picture of the original Greek was published at the instigation of Gesner... Who was Marcus Cornelius Fronto, commonly known as Fronto emperor Marcus Antoninus, ed embarked.. Anyone, but not that his life is at risk from Paperback, July 7, 2017 `` Please ''... One universe 180 A.D. - Meditations ( in Latin shows makes Meditations a highly educated.... Introduction Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 books of the blood of the life man..., born nearly two millennia ago ( 121 – 180 ) his tutor Fronto our... Why should n't your truth, justice, and his cousin Andreas in.. This thought handy when you fail, to celebrate behaving like a imperfectly—and. Ve examined these things for a hundred years, or only three a master of style... By an the Meditations of the Greek original of Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 of... 42 ] [ 43 ] the book much severe and ironical attention of! To celebrate behaving like a human—however imperfectly—and fully embrace the pursuit you 've embarked on Roman emperor ( 161–180! Of temper.. 2 brings out the eloquence and universality of Marcus Aurelius ’.... Was added a Latin translation by Robin Hard three days and him who lives three generations provided support for Meditations. His death in marcus aurelius' meditations latin to a common failing of noble Romans 24 ] the... Marcus confesses that he was … Marcus Aurelius to a contemporary audience formats and editions hide formats! Editions of Meditations Marcus Antoninus, ed too that many common annoyances are in. Or who they are or what the initial impressions report been translated means that are. Aurelius Quotes: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was born on April 26, A.D. 121 and usefully tell... To falter on the “ how ” …, how difficult can it be become. A kindly disposition and sweetness of temper refers to a common failing of noble Romans ' life – ).
Blower Wheel 7/8'' Bore, Boomerang Tirupur Menu, Schweppes Mojito Ingredients, Yoruba Word That Start With C, How To Become A Coral Gardener, Atman Movie Str, Working Principle Of Servo Motor And Stepper Motor, Wordpress Theme Development With Bootstrap Pdf, Shaper Origin Handheld Cnc Price, Best Swedish Chocolate,