eastern cottonwood tree identification
Steve Nix is a natural resources consultant and a former forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. Bark: Yellowish-green and smooth on young trees but deeply furrowed in maturity. If you want to use a cottonwood tree in landscaping, then choose the ‘Highland’ cultivar as it doesn’t produce annoying cotton fluff in the summer. Eastern Cottonwood is a large, fast growing species native to North America. Eastern Cottonwood Tree – Populus deltoides Family Salicaceae — Willow, Cottonwood, Aspen. To Native Americans, the tree was extremely important. As with all cottonwoods, the bark has deep fissures giving it a cracked appearance. Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides If you want to achieve quick shade in a large open space, Eastern Cottonwood is a fine choice. These cottonwood trees grow in the western regions of North America at high altitudes. The tree is short lived, very fast growing and can take over an open area if left alone. Picture of a Eastern Cottonwood tree, (Populus deltoides) species. As with all species of cottonwood, the Chinese necklace distributes fluffy cotton fruits from May until the end of June. Rather than having a delta-shaped leaf, they have heart-shaped leaves. The new growth is high in protein and minerals. Eastern cottonwood is a medium-sized tree that reaches heights of 50’to 100’ in height. Eastern cottonwoods are dioecious, meaning trees are either male or female. In North Carolina it is generally uncommon to occasional. Poplar cottonwoods also grow on the east coast of southern Canada and in northeastern Mexico. Insects and diseases. It is the fastest-growing native tree in Missouri, reaching 50 feet in height and 8 inches in diameter in as little as 6 years under good conditions. Eastern cottonwood is also called Carolina poplar, eastern poplar, necklace poplar, and Ã¡lamo. Similar to all species of cottonwood, black poplars are fast-growing trees that produce low-grade timber. The Pros of Cottonwood. Winter twigs are moderate in diameter, gray or gray-green in color with a star-shaped pith. Cottonwood Leaf Identification masuzi January 24, 2016 0 Red alder trees vs black cottonwood red alder trees vs black cottonwood cottonwood eastern poplar uf sfrc 4 h eastern cottonwood Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. The leaf edges are slightly serrated. As its name suggests, these poplar trees have narrow leaves when compared to other cottonwood trees. You will notice the leaves have a serrated edge and the curved triangle shape tapers to a sharp, elongated point. Their tall stature and wide-spreading dense foliage mean they are great shade trees. Apart from producing a flurry of white fuzzy fluff in late spring and early summer, there are other ways to identify cottonwoods. Female flowers elongate to 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in). One of the other problems with these types of poplar trees is that they are susceptible to diseases and bugs. 28 native deciduous trees of Eastern United States in their fall foliage. The tree is a hardwood and the lineal taxonomy is Magnoliopsida > Salicales > Salicaceae > Populus deltoides deltoides Bartr. Only the female species of cottonwood trees produce the white fluff for which the tree is known. The fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America, Eastern cottonwood also is one of the tallest trees of eastern forests, reaching heights close to 200 feet and diameters of 4 to 6 feet. Eastern Cottonwood, Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall Subspecies: ssp. Scientific Name: Populus deltoides. The seeds are very small, 1mm wide by 4 mm long. Eastern cottonwood will tolerate almost any situation. The petiole is flattened and glands are present at the top of the petiole. The average height ranges from 80 to 100 feet and 3 to 4 feet in diameter. Narrowleaf cottonwood trees grow to about 98 ft. (30 m) tall and grow in zones 3 – 7. Flowers on the eastern cottonwood species are reddish on male trees and yellowish-green on female trees. Distribution: Central and eastern United States. Other species of Cottonwood are found across the United States, and it is my understanding that they are used interchangeably for medicine. Has a bitter aspirin taste. The light white fluffy fibers can accumulate in yards, get into homes, block drains and gutters, and clog up filters. Twigs: The twigs of an eastern cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths. This widely planted tree has the potential to reach great heights. Eastern Cottonwood trees are one of the largest trees in North America, up to 100 ft. high with massive trunks up to 5 ft. in diameter. Some types of cottonwood such as the narrowleaf and Fremont species can live for up to 150 years. The tree is short lived, very fast growing and can take over an open area if left alone. Primary Identification. Narrowleaf cottonwood trees commonly grow at high altitudes. May 24, 2016 - Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is the fastest growing and largest tree found in Iowa. Female flowers elongate to 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in). Eastern cottonwood is frequently planted to give quick shade near homes. Leaves are simple, opposite, large, and oval (almost heartshaped). Eastern cottonwood is an exceedingly rapid-growing, moisture-loving species that is found locally in moist places and along streams and lakes throughout the state except at the higher elevations. Scientific Name: Populus deltoides Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Carolina Poplar, Southern Cottonwood . The eastern cottonwood can be seen throughout Minnesota's landscapes, in the urban environment as well as natural areas. Due to the fact that cottonwood lumber is soft, yet durable, it has many uses in the timber industry. Rather large amounts of wind-borne pollen are released from male catkins in the spring. Although, some studies do show that people can suffer from allergic reactions to the cotton. Both male and female black poplars produce yellow catkins. The main identifying features of black poplar cottonwoods are their fine-toothed leaves, oval diamond shapes, and glossy green color. Cottonwood has been used for windbreaks and soil stabilization. If you compare them with eastern cottonwood leaves, you will see Fremont’s cottonwood leaves are smaller with less serration. Fast growth and wonderful shade are reasons enough to cherish cottonwood, but these trees possess other qualities that make them worth planting. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves.A hybrid between this and Eurasian black poplar (P. nigra) is P. canadensis. Harnett Co., NC 6/5/05. deltoides- Eastern cottonwood ssp. eastern cottonwood Salicaceae Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall symbol: PODE3 Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in shape with a crenate/serrate margin. It’s natural range is throughout eastern, central and southwestern United States, and some southern parts of eastern Canada. Eastern Cottonwoods are related to poplars and aspens and are the fastest-growing commercial forest tree species native to North America when grown on well-drained soils near streams or rivers. This cottonwood species has long buds that grow up to 3 cm and these bloom into yellowish flowers. ex Marsh. It is the largest known tree of its species in the country as reported to American Forests. There may be 30 to 60 seeds per capsule. The lightweight, rather soft wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood. The open fruit of the Tulip Tree persisting through the winter. Eastern Cottonwood Fruit, Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. Another way to tell this species of poplar apart from other broadleaf trees is the rustling sound the leaves make in a gentle breeze. Trees are proportionately illustrated in a grove-like setting. Cottonwood trees are also planted for screens and shelterbelts. These leaves grow alternately on branches and have a flat stem. The trees are notorious for fluffy strings of seeds that get carried great distances in the breeze. The long, reddish Tulip Tree Buds. Janka Hardness: 430 lb f (1,910 N) Modulus of Rupture: 8,500 lb f /in 2 (58.6 MPa) This grayish-brown bark helps protects this native tree from drought and fire. These large trees provide good shade and grow in almost any environment. Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides Willow family (Salicaceae) Description: This deciduous tree is 60-120' tall at maturity. This cottonwood species is also classed as a riparian zone tree, meaning it thrives near rivers and streams. Flowers are unremarkable; both are long catkins. The fast growth rate of cottonwood trees and the strength of the timber means it has many uses. The black cottonwood is a tall tree that produces low-grade timber. Leaves are alternate, simple, 3–7 inches long, broadly triangular, abruptly pointed, with coarse teeth with tiny hairs, small glands at base of leaf blade; upper surface green, shiny; lower surface paler, smooth; leaf stalk slender, flattened. Eastern Cottonwood. It does not tolerate cold temperatures and is not commonly found in Northern Michigan unless in areas where temperatures are … Zone 0 covers the harshest areas in Canada for plant species. As with most species of trees in the cottonwood family, the timber is weak and the narrowleaf cottonwood tree is not commercially important. Deciduous trees are also known as hardwoods. Of course, the cotton fluff they shed in early summer is a problem for most people living near to cottonwood trees. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), cottonwoods grow in areas of full sun and in moist, well-drained sandy soil. The eastern cottonwood is a large tree that is characteristically found in floodplains, known for colonizing open areas. Even today, cottonwoods are grown in parks and other areas for the excellent shade from their dense foliage. Leaf: Alternate, simple, 3 to 7 inches long, triangle shaped with large rounded teeth, pale green in color . Eastern Cottonwood provides nesting habitat for such birds as the Pileated Woodpecker (cavities in large trees), Baltimore Oriole, Warbling Vireo, Northern Parula, and Yellow Warbler (young trees). Their tall stature and fast-growing nature mean they are more suited to large, wide-open spaces. Forestryimages.org provides several images of parts of Eastern cottonwood. deltoides). For many people, the fluff from cottonwood trees is a nuisance. Due to its large size, weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is best used on large properties away from residential areas. Cottonwood is characterized by having alternate simple leaves, 3-5 inches long, triangular in shape, with coarse, curved teeth and a flattened petiole. These large trees can grow to between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m). Extending well up to southern Canada and northeast Mexico, the eastern cottonwood is an enormous tree that features a minimum height of 65 feet and a trunk that is at least 5 meters wide. Eastern Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy white seeds produced by the females during early summer. These medium-sized trees are good for landscaping and shade. The eastern cottonwood is without a doubt, one of the largest hardwood trees found in North America. I purchased my first Eastern Cottonwood from a mail-order nursery in Pennsylvania, Go Native Tree Farm, which arrived as a tiny stick. There has been considerable interest in cottonwood for energy biomass, because of its high yield potential and coppicing ability. Some reasons why cottonwood trees are popular are that they are fast-growing, their timber is cheap, and they thrive in wetlands and arid environments. The bark is smooth and silvery-white when young and becomes hard, gray, and deeply fissured as the tree matures. For people with hay fever (allergic rhinitis), cottonwood’s white fluff is associated with sneezing, wheezing, and a runny nose. It is a fast-growing, tall tree. Eastern Cottonwood trees are one of the largest trees in North America, up to 100 ft. high with massive trunks up to 5 ft. in diameter. Black cottonwood trees become stunning in the fall where their foliage turns a beautiful bright yellow color. The Eastern Cottonwood is from eastern North America and typically found growing along streams, rivers, and in lowland areas and swamps, and here in Houston, we like to plant them as a showy, fast-growing shade tree! Non-native, trees out of their natural range, cultivars Coniferous vs Deciduous Coniferous trees bear their seeds in cones and have very narrow needlelike leaves. Swamp cottonwoods are another species of massive tree that grows in temperate regions in North America. This tree, which grows rapidly, is typically found on the floodplains of rivers and streams, but is sometimes cultivated.
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